In addition to unarmed training, self defense must include training in the use of and defense against weapons. See our weapons page for more detailed information. These days it's likely a real predator will have a weapon. Training to defend against blunt, sharp, and projectile weapons is essential. And because the use of weapons can give you a major advantage, learning to use weapons (including objects found in your environment) should not be neglected.
Perform sport-specific, strength-training moves using body-weight exercises. MMA coach Doug Balzarini recommends integrating movements -- such as the sit-out, bear crawl, sprawl and complex inchworm -- to prepare for a fight. Each of these movements improves balance while working core, upper and lower-body muscle groups. Include these exercises with your resistance-training workouts, performing three to four sets of 10 to 12 reps each.
Training for a sport isn’t the same as logging a sweat session at the gym. “If you’re boxing, it’s not about burning calories or fat—it’s about getting good at the movements and building a skill,” says Ortiz. “It brings you back to when you were a kid, when you wanted to be a baseball player or a ballerina.” With that in mind, add some or all of these exercises to your next workout routine for an added punch. Complete 8-10 reps of each.
Strength and conditioning sessions are supporting sessions to all other training. If because of your training the athlete is so sore for a couple of days that they have to miss their fighting practice, you did fail as a trainer. It may happen that you want to increase the intensity of your strength and conditioning sessions, but always make sure it does not conflict with the fighting practices.

In the year 2000, MMA play-by-play commentator Stephen Quadros coined the popular phrase lay and pray. This refers to a situation where a wrestler or grappler keeps another fighter pinned or controlled on the mat to avoid a stand up, yet exhibits little urgency to finish the grounded opponent with a knockout or a submission for the majority or entirety of the fight.[130] The implication of "lay and pray" is that after the wrestler/grappler takes the striker down and 'lays' on him to neutralize the opponent's striking weapons, he 'pray's that the referee does not return them to the standing position. This style is considered by many fans as the most boring style of fighting and is highly criticized for intentionally creating non-action, yet it is effective. Some argue that 'lay-and-pray' is justified and that it is the responsibility of the downed fighter to be able to protect himself from this legitimate fighting technique.[130][131][132][133] Many consider Jon Fitch's style to epitomize 'lay and pray'.[134] Former UFC Welterweight champion Georges St-Pierre has been criticized by fans for playing it safe and applying the lay and pray tactic in his fights,[135] as has Bellator MMA Welterweight champion Ben Askren, who justified the tactic, explaining that championship fights are much harder as are five rounds long, compared with the usual three.[136]


In general, the injury pattern in MMA is very similar to that in professional boxing but unlike that found in other combat sports such as judo and taekwondo.[170] The most commonly injured body region is the head (66.8% to 78.0% of reported injuries) followed by the wrist/hand (6.0% to 12.0% of reported injuries), while the most frequent types of injury were laceration (36.7% to 59.4% of reported injuries), fracture (7.4% to 43.3% of reported injuries), and concussion (3.8% to 20.4% of reported injuries).[170] The frequency of impact to the ear and low utilization of ear protection leads to a high frequency of perichondral hematoma that can lead to cauliflower ear.[178]


Every fighter understands the value of explosive power in combat sports and many believe that interval training is a great way to this sought after quality. Although this can certainly be true if the right interval methods are used, many of the most commonly used interval methods – Tabata intervals in particular among them – are not the most effective tools for this specific purpose.
What to expect: There’s a lot of visualization to be done when it comes to Wing Chun. In order to keep the body in balance, it teaches the idea of a center line in the body, which guides every action. The attacks consist mostly of rapid strikes performed while moving forward, into the opponent. The stance is also different from other martial arts, so be prepared to be sore in odd places.
Solutions offered by Fit To Fight® include, but are not limited to, active and passive measures not meant only to “harden” targets, but rather to create zones less likely to be seen as targets. This will be accomplished by employing a series of measures making these “zones” less appealing to potential assailants. Fit To Fight®’s Active Killer Defense™ is designed as a dynamic training modality, involving physical defensive tactics training, realistic scenario training, and lectures. The end goal is to create safer and more secure schools, businesses, churches and communities.
At Easton, we know what it takes to be a fighter–from preparing for your first time in the ring to competing at the highest levels. If you have the dedication and determination, we can give you the skills to make you a contender. To get started on your MMA journey, come to Easton Training Centers, and train where the pros train. Sign up online, and you can get a free trial to experience the Easton difference. So book your first class now, and get ready to rule the Octagon!
Train for cardio first, then power, then strength, then mix in some stamina. Your best and most effective workouts will combine all four. The great thing about programming your workouts is you can get creative and have fun doing it. There is an endless mixture of exercises, routines, reps, and time limits, that can produce incredible fitness. If you think that running, or rowing are the only ways to build up your cardio, then you need to read on and find out how you can get very creative with your exercises. How about punching a bag 4 times, then doing a sprawl and standing up and doing, two kicks on the bag, then doing a backdrop, then do 5 squat jumps, 5 push ups, and repeat those movements as quickly as you can for 9 minutes, then rest for a minute and repeat for another nine minutes. You have just combined unbelievable cardio, with power, and strength, with stamina all in one workout. Combining all of the characteristics of fitness is the best way to train. For instance doing a 5K run is great for your stamina and cardio, but it does little for your strength or power. Doing max deadlifts doesn’t do much for your cardio or stamina, but it is great for your strength, Learn how to mix and match your workouts and you will get the best results, and have the most fun doing them… PS any strength or power movement done with reps that get your heart rate up, and your breathing labored, becomes cardio.
Train your power endurance by performing explosive exercises of a moderate load for about 30-45 seconds (or 15-20 reps), resting for 30 seconds, and repeating for 5 rounds. Circuit training is another great option. But, it's critical to remember that your intervals should be at least 30 seconds long. After all, you'll goal should be to make it through at least a least one three-minute round!
In April 2000, the California State Athletic Commission voted unanimously in favor of regulations that later became the foundation for the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. However, when the legislation was sent to the California capital in Sacramento for review, it was determined that the sport fell outside the jurisdiction of the CSAC, rendering the vote meaningless.[52]

The HawaiianMiles rewards program is ideal for those traveling from the United States, Asia and the South Pacific to the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Airlines serves more than 25 domestic and international destinations and provides nonstop daily service to Hawaii from multiple U.S. cities. The HawaiianMiles program offers a variety of ways to earn miles, from booking flights and hotels to shopping at Hawaiian Airlines partner vendors. Earn more miles on everyday purchases by signing up and using the Hawaiian Airlines World Elite Mastercard from Barclays. You can redeem your miles for future hotel stays, car rentals and flights on Hawaiian Airlines and its airline partners, which include JetBlue and Korean Air.
“I am very happy with my membership and training.  I have been most impressed by the people there and how friendly, helpful and approachable everyone is.  And this goes from the top down and includes instructors as well as other class members.  Having no prior martial arts training, I was a little concerned when my boyfriend convinced me to join that there would be a lot of hard core, militant types in the class that would be intimidating to a small woman like me.  On the contrary, I’ve found everyone to be friendly and approachable and easy to work with.  I am sure that attitude is instilled from the top down (meaning you) because your class members want to emulate you.  So they take cues from you and when they see that you are respectful of everyone and friendly and approachable in your training style, they act the same way.  So please don’t change a thing about that…because I continue to be impressed every class by how wonderful the people are!”
As MMA classes open their doors to a wider range of students, many of the new faces in these gyms are women. Their inclusion is a reflection of a larger trend in the professional ranks, where the number of female fighters has increased dramatically since the UFC introduced a women’s division in 2012. At the UFC’s fitness gyms, 44 percent of all members are women, Sedlack said.
Elite MMA is the top mixed martial arts (MMA) training facility in the greater Houston area, with school locations in Houston, Baytown, Greenway Plaza and Kingwood. We are experts in the instruction of self-defense, muay thai, kickboxing, boxing, mixed martial arts (MMA) and Brazilian Ju Jitsu (BJJ), offering these essential classes across Houston. We pride ourselves on providing an environment for fun, happiness, and personal growth each day we come together. Thank you for coming to our web site.
Diane is hounded by FBI officials over her connections to Tully – a radical left-wing activist she had been sleeping with – and her previous filmed remarks about President Trump on the DNC audition tapes. Diane thinks that she is being bugged, after the prosecutor plays her a tape of her and Tully talking in her bedroom. The FBI interrogate Kurt about the gun he gave Diane, by saying that it is part of his background check. Proving his love and loyalty to Diane, he orders them out of his house, but not before Patrick Baseheart tells him that Diane will be indicted. It becomes clear the federal government are set on prosecuting her to make an example of the firm. Fighting fire with fire, Boseman leaks false information to a Fox News journalist concerning a porn star who slept with the President, alleging she instead was having an affair with the federal prosecutor targeting Diane; the President, who reliably watches Fox & Friends, would be sure to fire him via a tweet within minutes. Meanwhile, Lucca gives birth to a healthy baby boy, who she names Joseph Quinn-Morrello, but her mother sows seeds of doubt in her mind about Colin.
Visualize your results while you are working out, and know that they will be accomplished. Visualize each workout before you do it, while you are doing it, and how you did it. Get specific on your visualization during your workouts. Visualize yourself getting stronger with every rep. Visualize and feel your cardio increasing every time you are working out. Vsualize your technique and your power increasing with every punch, kick, pull-up, push-up, etc. Visualize the results you want to get, while you are training.
Phoenix welcomes owner of Trooper Fitness Studio, Prince Brathwaite and certified personal trainer and former competitive bodybuilder, Albert Gonzalez to the podcast. In part one of this two part series, the three preach the importance of having a fitness plan and believing in the numbers. With decades of fitness experience between them, Prince and Albert shed light on the importance of rest and recovery, the difference between training for health, sport or ideal body and what the formula is for each. Learn how to set your fitness goals in episode 67 of In Fighting Shape.

Also, keep in mind, we want to do this as a conditioning routine. This is a way to get into fighting shape, but not prepare for a fight. This routine, may or may not be good for an MMA fighter, honestly, I don’t know because I’m not one! What I do know is the following workout(s) are my answer to my own question, how do you develop the conditioning to go 25 minutes in the octagon?  So we develop and we progress.  Start with 3 minute rounds and we’ll work up to the 5.
6) Training MMA fulfills mans need for physical expression aka violence. We don't want violence in our daily lives but we still yearn for physicality. We all get pumped up seeing fights in movies or TV or when we hear about someone who was accosted by thugs and kicked the crap out of the them. Training MMA is a perfect middle ground. You can train (or fight) in controlled areas and release aggression with no threat of repercussions, jail time, murder etc..
Tiffany is an American Muay Thai kickboxer who competes in the bantamweight division. Originally a Shōrin-ryū karate practitioner, van Soest began Muay Thai at the age of eighteen and was both a state and national titlist as an amateur before turning professional in 2011 and winning the WBC Muaythai International Super Bantamweight Championship the following year.
Zone 5 often called anaerobic or VO2 max training, is considered true high intensity training. Training in Zone 5 is responsible for increasing an athlete's ability to produce force in a metabolically acidic environment. Paired with the large amounts of perceived exertion, the duration of which this intensity can be held is severly limited compared to lower and moderate intensity training.
Adrian wants to take on another anti-Trump case as a strategy to attract clients from the entertainment industry. Kresteva approaches Maia about the fake news stories that were started about her. Surprisingly, Kresteva knows about Maia's visits to her father. Barbara asks Diane for her capital contribution, forcing Diane to reevaluate her expenses. Kurt visits Diane at the office, asking for help with a public speech. Diane helps him rewrite the speech and supports him by attending and watching him give the speech. The firm's partners interview attorneys to defend them against Kresteva. Lucca suggest Adrian employ an unorthodox lawyer. Diane runs into Neil Gross, who has some interesting news for her. Kresteva visits the prison, and soon after, Henry is out on bail. Maia happily meets him at home until she sees her parents acting like nothing has happened. Later, an attorney makes her question whether her father would turn on her. A potential attorney for the firm confronts Kresteva not once but twice, the second time in a very personal way that scares him somewhat. Colin stops by the courtroom to see Lucca in action. The two of them finally go on their date, where Lucca opens up about Alicia.

If you find you are overtraining, then cut back on your workouts, starting first with the sprint portions of the cardio, and then with some of the strength training if need be, or take the day off altogether. Once you have recovered begin adding back exercises slowly to find your limit. You may find that your resting heart rate drops over the twelve weeks. This is good, and it’s a sign that your cardio is improving.
Other fighters may use the clinch to push their opponent against the cage or ropes, where they can effectively control their opponent's movement and restrict mobility while striking them with punches to the body or stomps also known as dirty boxing or "Wall and Maul". Randy Couture used his Greco Roman wrestling background to popularize this style en route to six title reigns in the Ultimate Fighting Championship.[142]
MMA is a complex sport that involves many different art forms. Fighters are forced to balance all aspects of their fight training, including boxing, Muay Thai, kickboxing, wrestling, jiu jitsu, drilling, technique, sparring and more. On top of this, they also need to fit some type of strength and conditioning plan, pay their bills, eat, sleep, and manage to squeeze in a personal life (family, friends, kids, etc).
Proper weight distribution is another important factor. When squared off with your opponent, always try to maintain a fifty percent weight distribution. This non committal weight distribution will provide you with the ability to move in any direction quickly and efficiently. At the same time, it will provide you with the necessary stability to withstand and defend against various
One misconception about energy systems is that each energy system completely turns on or off during various intensities and durations of exercise. Instead, all three energy systems contribute to energy production during all modalities and intensities of exercise. The relative contributions of each will depend on the velocity and force demands of the exercise bout or sport.
Without the power of legal change, the status of civil rights in America would not be nearly as far along as it is today. Lawyers have the power to use the law to protect victims of racism, as well as change the law in order to protect civil rights and ensure equality. Sometimes racism is fought in the streets, and sometimes it is fought in courtrooms.

Several accomplished MMA fighters have an extensive background in taekwondo.[114] Some fighters who use taekwondo techniques in MMA are former UFC lightweight champion and WEC lightweight champion Anthony Pettis, who is 3rd dan black belt as well as an instructor,[115] and former UFC middleweight champion Anderson Silva, who is 5th dan black belt and still competes in taekwondo.[116]


To make things simplier, intensity can be categorized into different training zones. In the chart below, training intensity zones are based off of a percentage of an athlete's maximal heart rate OR a percentage of their lactate threshold. Heart rate is well-known to have a linear relationship with exercise intensity, in that when workload or intensity increases, heart rate will also increase to supply the working muscles with blood. 
Boxing is a combat form that is widely used in MMA and is one of the primary striking bases for many fighters.[97] Boxing punches account for the vast majority of strikes during the stand up portion of a bout and also account for the largest number of significant strikes, knock downs and KOs in MMA matches.[98] Several aspects of boxing are extremely valuable such as footwork, combinations, and defensive techniques like slips, head movement and stance (including chin protection and keeping hands up) commonly known as the Guard position.[99] Boxing-based fighters have also been shown to throw and land a higher volume of strikes when compared with other striking bases, at a rate of 3.88 per minute with 9.64 per minute thrown (compared with Muay Thai at 3.46 and 7.50, respectively).[97] Fighters known for using boxing include Cain Velasquez, Nick Diaz, Junior dos Santos, B.J. Penn, Dan Hardy, Shane Carwin and Andrei Arlovski.
According to the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts, an MMA competition or exhibition may be held in a ring or a fenced area. The fenced area can be round or have at least six sides. Cages vary: some replace the metal fencing with a net, others have a different shape from an octagon, as the term "the Octagon" is trademarked by the UFC (though the 8-sided shape itself is not trademarked).[93] The fenced area is called a cage generically, or a hexagon, an octagon or an octagon cage, depending on the shape.

"After training at the same spot for four years, I felt like I needed a change of scenery. As tough as it was to leave my former trainer, I needed a place to take me to the next level. Barwis Methods was the clear choice for me. Working out with elite athletes day-in and day-out brings out the true competitor in me and the atmosphere is the best around."

As a result of an increased number of competitors, organized training camps, information sharing, and modern kinesiology, the understanding of the effectiveness of various strategies has been greatly improved. UFC commentator Joe Rogan claimed that martial arts evolved more in the ten years following 1993 than in the preceding 700 years combined.[70]


Shadow boxing is an essential practice for both MMA combatants and boxers. I make all the fighters I train shadow box at least 4 rounds as a warm up, with a mix of bag work, head movement drills and lastly focus mitts or pads and then back to shadowing a round or two as a cool down. I've noticed Shadow boxing in MMA for some it isn't used as much as it should be. I've even asked some of the fighters why they don't and most say they'd rather not waste their energy hitting nothing and would rather use that energy on the bag, mitts etc. but shadowing is an art and a major tool that should be used by every combatant. For whatever reason, the guys that don't I feel is the result of a lack of creative thinking.
What factors go into losing those last five pounds? Could it be the basic items such as sleep, mood levels, or getting the right app? Or is it the high level answers (like gluton, insulin, libido) that can really shave the last few pounds? We called a doctor to join us give us answers in episode 73 of In Fighting Shape. You don't want to miss Dr. Serena Goldstein break it down for you listeners, so tune in for episode 73 now!
The more you know about the dynamics and characteristics of street fighting, the greater you chances surviving and ultimately winning the fight. There is an old saying in my self defense school, "the more you know, the less you will fear in the streets". To help get you started on your academic journey, here are some important facts about the nature and characteristics of street fighting.
If you prefer to work with adults, there are many options. For example, there is much work to be done in the area of reintegrating ex-convicts into society, by helping them get career training and employment, maintain their parole terms, remain sober, and avoid recidivism. Racism in housing is still a major issue, and you can fight racism by helping people secure affordable housing.

For this workout can I interchange between the two different muscles that are being worked out and take a rest after I do one set. So for example I do squats then Pull ups, with no rest in between but take a rest after I do both. Then after I do four sets of that I move on to Leg press and lat pull downs, no rest inbetween but take a rest after i do one set of each and so on. I really like these workout but need to modify it to decrease the amount of time i spend in the gym. With a full time job i am also a student and try to train as much as i can.

While mixed martial arts is primarily a male dominated sport, it does have female athletes. Female competition in Japan includes promotions such as the all-female Valkyrie, and JEWELS (formerly known as Smackgirl).[145] However historically there has been only a select few major professional mixed martial arts organizations in the United States that invite women to compete. Among those are Strikeforce, Bellator Fighting Championships, the all female Invicta Fighting Championships, and the now defunct EliteXC.[citation needed]


Neil Gross immediately puts the firm to work when he wants hate speech, and the people responsible for it, removed from his websites. Maia takes the assignment personally when the hate speech sounds like threats she has been getting. Colin talks to his supervisor again about Kresteva. Marissa thinks about getting into investigating. Maia's uncle stops by the office to see her. He warns her that her father is up to something. She reaches out to Elsbeth for advice. Things are heating up between Colin and Lucca until he asks her to go to dinner. After the firm decides to implement an appeals process for banned users, one such user has a field day presenting his narrative. Information from the firm's discussions about the appeals process is leaked. Online users use it to their advantage. Lucca arranges a date so that they'll run into Colin but it doesn't produce the results she's expecting. When she confronts him later, she's surprised again. Maia shows up for a meeting with her dad and finds a party in progress. She's nervous when he tries to speak with her in private. Marissa steps in when the investigator needs some help tracking down a very specific kind of online user. Not surprisingly, she's good at it. Elsbeth stops by to warn the firm about the newest fake news story. Julius makes a surprising decision about his future with the firm.

It should be noted that the structure of a typical professional MMA bout has a true work-to-complete rest ratio of 5:1 (5 minute rounds, 1 minute breaks), while the work-to-active rest ratio inside each 5 minute round is determined by the tactical strategies and the skill set of the MMA athletes. Fighters described as "grinders" such as Michael Bisping or Nick Diaz will display a much higher work-rest ratio than more "explosive" athletes like Jose Aldo or Tyron Woodley.
What to expect: If you want to hit people, this isn’t the place to be. The only time strikes are thrown are during kata or forms, which are pre-arranged fight scenarios designed to practice defending against strikes and show off the capabilities of Judo. You can also expect to get thrown on the ground. A lot. In fact, it’s likely that every session, or at least most of them, will be spent practicing falling so it’ll hurt less when you get taken down.
What seems to be more important is the sparing use of these high intensity intervals outside of MMA training. By the way of training periodization, and the principle of specificity, the majority of the high intensity intervals should be performed few weeks out before the fight. Performing a high volume of high intensity training year round hinders a fighter's ability to improve their skills and stay injury-free.
Mixed martial arts appear everywhere. For example, mixed martial arts events and personalities appear in just about every magazine such as GQ, Newsweek, Time, Playboy as well as smaller publications like Black Belt Magazine (for a complete list of mixed martial arts magazines, see my list below). Mixed martial arts also frequently appear in television shows, xbox games and movies. Mixed martial arts have their reality TV shows such as Tapout, The Ultimate Fighter and Caged that focus exclusively on the life of mixed martial arts personalities. Mixed martial arts also have their own unique workout gear and clothing line such as Tapout, Bad Boy MMA, Affliction, Cage Fighter and Xtreme Couture. For better or worse, it seems like mixed martial arts has taken over the world.
If you want to learn MMA in Denver and the Front Range, the Easton academies should be your first stop. There’s a reason the pros choose us! We offer the best martial arts training in the area, with experienced, professional instructors who will teach you how to dominate in the cage. Easton MMA is a well-rounded program, which will give you a solid range of techniques.
At Easton, we know what it takes to be a fighter–from preparing for your first time in the ring to competing at the highest levels. If you have the dedication and determination, we can give you the skills to make you a contender. To get started on your MMA journey, come to Easton Training Centers, and train where the pros train. Sign up online, and you can get a free trial to experience the Easton difference. So book your first class now, and get ready to rule the Octagon!
I call it the “complex” inchworm because it’s really a combination of a few movements. Start with your feet together and bend from the waist as you reach your hands to the ground. Perform an ‘inchworm’ movement by walking your hands out until you are in a push-up position. From here, rock your body back slightly and jump your feet up to the outsides of your hands.  Sink your butt down as low as you comfortably can for a great groin stretch, and then raise one arm overhead as high as possible, trying to draw your arm back so that it is in line with your ear. Lift the other arm in the same fashion and stand up. Lower your arms and repeat the whole sequence for five to six complete repetitions.

Crank up your cardio with interval training. Cardiovascular strength is extremely important for fighters who must be able to maintain explosive, aerobic strength for the duration of each round. Improve your stamina for fights by doing short sprints between recovery runs instead of a long, steady-state session. You can apply this principle to any form of cardiovascular training. Try to include at least one 20 to 30-minute interval workout each week.
The Combat Fitness classes at Team Quest MMA in Portland are a cardio blitz designed to give people of all fitness levels a great workout. This class utilizes components of kickboxing, boxing & MMA skills and dynamic conditioning drills using combat principles. This class is perfect for beginners or those looking to shake out the ring rust and get back into fighting shape.
Previously, Japan-based organization Pride Fighting Championships held an opening 10-minute round followed by two five-minute rounds. Stomps, soccer kicks and knees to the head of a grounded opponent are legal, but elbow strikes to the head are not.[81] This rule set is more predominant in the Asian-based organizations as opposed to European and American rules. More recently, Singapore-based organization ONE Championship allows soccer kicks and knees to the head of a grounded opponent as well as elbow strikes to the head, but does not allow head stomps.[82]
Which makes sense, considering how MMA fighters train to survive three five-minute rounds of non-stop, full-body attacks from people who want nothing more than to beat them into submission. To go the distance, they have to be in peak condition: panther-like speed, incredible stamina, and serious strength. Even for those of us with no intention of stepping into the ring, MMA-style training can be a terrific addition to any fitness regime.
Vale tudo began in the 1920s and became gained renown through its association with the "Gracie challenge", which was issued by Carlos Gracie and Hélio Gracie and upheld later by descendants of the Gracie family. The "Gracie Challenges" were held in the garages and gyms of the Gracie family members. When the popularity grew, these types of mixed bouts were a staple attraction at the carnivals in Brazil.[37] Early mixed-match martial arts professional wrestling bouts in Japan (known as Ishu Kakutōgi Sen (異種格闘技戦), literally "heterogeneous combat sports bouts") became popular with Antonio Inoki only in the 1970s. Inoki was a disciple of Rikidōzan, but also of Karl Gotch, who trained numerous Japanese wrestlers in catch wrestling.
Mixed Martial Arts competitions have changed dramatically since the first Ultimate Fighting Championship in 1993, specifically with the inception of the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. There remains a paucity of data on injuries that occur in MMA, and resulting concerns with regard to MMA's safety remain. A recent systematic review concluded that the injury incidence rate in MMA appears to be greater than in most, if not all, other popular and commonly practiced combat sports.[170]
The series follows Christine Baranski as Diane Lockhart, as she is forced out of Lockhart, Deckler, Gussman, Lee, Lyman, Gilbert-Lurie, Kagan, Tannebaum, & Associates after an enormous financial scam destroys the reputation of her goddaughter Maia (Rose Leslie) and Diane's savings, leading them to join Lucca Quinn (Cush Jumbo) at one of Chicago's preeminent law firms. The series stars Baranski, Leslie, Jumbo, Erica Tazel, Sarah Steele, Justin Bartha, Delroy Lindo, Nyambi Nyambi, Michael Boatman, and Audra McDonald, and features Paul Guilfoyle and Bernadette Peters in recurring roles. It is executive produced by Robert King, Michelle King, Ridley Scott, David W. Zucker, Liz Glotzer, Brooke Kennedy and Alison Scott, with Phil Alden Robinson producing and co-writing the first episode.[1]

No-holds-barred fighting reportedly took place in the late 1880s when wrestlers representing style of Catch wrestling and many others met in tournaments and music-hall challenge matches throughout Europe. In the USA, the first major encounter between a boxer and a wrestler in modern times took place in 1887 when John L. Sullivan, then heavyweight world boxing champion, entered the ring with his trainer, wrestling champion William Muldoon, and was slammed to the mat in two minutes. The next publicized encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob Fitzsimmons took on European wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. In September 1901, Frank "Paddy" Slavin, who had been a contender for Sullivan's boxing title, knocked out future world wrestling champion Frank Gotch in Dawson City, Canada.[17] The judo-practitioner Ren-nierand, who gained fame after defeating George Dubois, would fight again in another similar contest, which he lost to Ukrainian Catch wrestler Ivan Poddubny.[16]


The ALACTIC system (aka the phosphagen or phosphocreatine system) is the energy system capable of producing the most energy within the shortest amount of time. A fight-ending flurry or combination uses this energy system. The alactic system is different to the aerobic and anaerobic system in that it produces energy by directly breaking down the ATP molecule, bypassing the conversion of fats, carbohydrates or protein into ATP. However, our body has limited stores of ATP, therefore the alactic system is the quickest to fatigue and can only produce large bursts of energy for up to 10 seconds. Fully restoring phosphocreatine and ATP stores takes around 5-8 minutes; this restoration time can be influenced by strength & conditioning training, as well as the level of development of the aerobic and anaerobic system.

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