You’ll also get a taste of their main expertise, MMA and kickboxing, in the MATRX class—a cutting edge routine that incorporates TRX suspension. TRX increases your movement capacity and engages your muscle fibers in a way free weights and machines can’t because it utilizes your own bodyweight from various angles. Your stability, flexibility and endurance are strengthened—and most of all, your mind is engaged.
In the year 2000, MMA play-by-play commentator Stephen Quadros coined the popular phrase lay and pray. This refers to a situation where a wrestler or grappler keeps another fighter pinned or controlled on the mat to avoid a stand up, yet exhibits little urgency to finish the grounded opponent with a knockout or a submission for the majority or entirety of the fight.[130] The implication of "lay and pray" is that after the wrestler/grappler takes the striker down and 'lays' on him to neutralize the opponent's striking weapons, he 'pray's that the referee does not return them to the standing position. This style is considered by many fans as the most boring style of fighting and is highly criticized for intentionally creating non-action, yet it is effective. Some argue that 'lay-and-pray' is justified and that it is the responsibility of the downed fighter to be able to protect himself from this legitimate fighting technique.[130][131][132][133] Many consider Jon Fitch's style to epitomize 'lay and pray'.[134] Former UFC Welterweight champion Georges St-Pierre has been criticized by fans for playing it safe and applying the lay and pray tactic in his fights,[135] as has Bellator MMA Welterweight champion Ben Askren, who justified the tactic, explaining that championship fights are much harder as are five rounds long, compared with the usual three.[136]

Doctor Stoppage/Cut: the referee will call for a time out if a fighter's ability to continue is in question as a result of apparent injuries, such as a large cut. The ring doctor will inspect the fighter and stop the match if the fighter is deemed unable to continue safely, rendering the opponent the winner. However, if the match is stopped as a result of an injury from illegal actions by the opponent, either a disqualification or no contest will be issued instead.

Grappling Range - this is the third and final range of unarmed street fighting. Grappling range is divided into two different planes (vertical or horizontal). In the vertical plane, you can generally deliver impact techniques. Some include: elbow and knee strikes, head butts, gouging and crushing tactics, biting and tearing techniques. In the horizontal plane, you are ground fighting with your adversary and can deliver all the previously mentioned techniques, including various submission holds, locks and chokes.
Happy New Years from the In Fighting Shape podcast! Have questions on what your New Year's resolution could be? Comedian and actor, Wil Slyvince rejoins the podcast to talk just that and other topics such as began vegan, hanging out with fellow comedians, and his opinions on what's going on. Be a better you, after listening to podcast episode 71 of In Fighting Shape. 
Small, open-fingered gloves were introduced to protect fists, reduce the occurrence of cuts (and stoppages due to cuts) and encourage fighters to use their hands for striking to allow more captivating matches. Gloves were first made mandatory in Japan's Shooto promotion and were later adopted by the UFC as it developed into a regulated sport. Most professional fights have the fighters wear 4 oz gloves, whereas some jurisdictions require amateurs to wear a slightly heavier 6 oz glove for more protection for the hands and wrists.
The Romanian Mixed Martial Arts Federation (RMMAF) was established in 2012 as a legal non-profit federation under the Ministry of Youth and Sport in Romania. The Federation was formed by the board of MMA organization AGON and backed by a broad representation of the Romanian MMA community, including around twenty MMA clubs and non-profit MMA organizations around the country. Based in Bucharest, Romania AGON club was founded in its present legal form in June 2012, following a long period of time of acting under different other organisations, with Gheorghe Stanciu elected as its president. The RMMAF is affiliated to the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation (IMMAF).[250][251][252][253]
Whether you want to be an mixed martial artist or you're an amateur athlete hoping to improve your game, training like an MMA fighter is a great high-intensity workout. MMA training routines can help you hone your discipline, endurance, and agility while strengthening your core. Practice these training exercises on your own or enlist the help of a coach, personal trainer, or MMA class. With persistence and the right technique, you can train just like the pros.

This article is great. MMA really prepares you for life threatening situations. Sometimes when it goes down, fighting is your means of survival. Still, in order do this or to become a good MMA fighter you should really train hard. I mean, champions had to work their way to the top. Training is not easy; your body will be strained and you go through a lot of pain. Learning MMA is a great self-defence, whether you need to protect yourself standing-up or in the ground. Thanks for your 10 reasons.
Lucca and Maia are assigned separate ride-alongs with the police. Lucca's uneventful night turns surprisingly eventful after she realizes that the person behind a DUI is Francesa Lovatelli, Colin's mother. She calls Colin and Colin arrives at the police station. While there, Lucca tells him that she is 3 months pregnant and that it is his child. At the firm Diane and Adrian advise clients who are about to be sued over running a story about sexual harassment. In the course of the case Adrian bumps into a former student and is surprised by what she tells him about himself.
The Alaska Airlines Mileage Plan caters to flyers who frequent various destinations in Alaska, West Coast cities (like Seattle and Portland, Oregon), major transportation hubs (like Atlanta and New York City), as well as destinations in Canada, Mexico and Costa Rica. By joining the Alaska Airlines Mileage Plan, you can start earning miles on every Alaska Airlines flight you take and eligible flights on Alaska Airlines' 17 partner airlines, including American Airlines, Emirates and British Airways. You can also earn miles by making everyday purchases with the Alaska Airlines Visa Signature Card or by staying with seven participating hotel partners, including Best Western, InterContinental and Marriott. The miles you earn can be used toward free flights on Alaska Airlines and other participating carriers, partner hotel stays, magazine subscriptions or donations to charity.
Managing fatigue: As you progress through this workout, you will feel a new sense of fatigue. Stay active throughout the round and use the Jumping Jacks to actively recover from the Burpees and Swings. Think about a UFC round in a fight for a second, it’s not balls to the wall the whole 5 minutes. When that happens the fighter gasses out way early. You have to find out how to push hard and manage your fatigue on the fly. That’s the sign of a professional.
Do a strength training workout three or four days a week. Weight training using free weights or specialized machines at the gym are good choices. Alternate between your upper and lower body each time you work out. You want to push yourself by lifting the heaviest possible weights, but you don't want to hurt yourself or become sore. Lessen the amount of weights or number of repetitions if you need to.

FITQUEST combines weightlifting, sprinting, and gymnastics with MMA training movements such as heavy bag training, ground & pound dummy training. FITQUEST says that proficiency is required in each of ten fitness domains: cardiovascular/respiratory endurance, stamina, strength, flexibility, power, speed, agility, balance, coordination, and accuracy. It defines fitness as increased work capacity across all these domains and says its program achieves this by provoking neurologic and hormonal adaptations across all metabolic pathways.


Do you want to join the ranks of Randy Couture, Quinton "Rampage" Jackson, and Anderson Silva in becoming an Ultimate Fighter? With the proper guidance and background, you can learn to become the kind of well-rounded athletic competitor that the UFC is looking for. Learn to fight, get experience, and figure out how to go pro. See Step 1 for more information.
(January 3, 2014), Fedor Emelianenko vs. Anderson Silva: Comparing and Contrasting 2 Legends, "What we can agree on is that both of these men changed the game. In a sport where everyone loses, these men beat the best of the best and held off the inevitable for the longest. Few men in any field can lay claim to such accomplishment and influence over their own sport. That is something to be applauded, examined and appreciated—not bickered over.", Bleacher report, Retrieved May 17, 2014

Just as different forms and aspects of striking – those from Boxing, Kickboxing, Muay Thai, traditional martial arts, etc. – each have unique advantages and disadvantages and need to be utilized appropriately in an MMA fight, there are also many different forms and effective applications of interval training. In this article, I’ll present you with four different methods of interval training that I’ve successfully used over the last seven years with more than thirty top pro fighters. Each interval method has a different purpose and application and I guarantee each can help improve the effectiveness of your training program.
On September 30, 2000, the New Jersey State Athletic Control Board (NJSACB) began allowing mixed martial arts promoters to conduct events in New Jersey. The first event was an IFC event titled Battleground 2000 held in Atlantic City. The intent was to allow the NJSACB to observe actual events and gather information to establish a comprehensive set of rules to regulate the sport effectively.[53]
What to expect: There’s a lot of visualization to be done when it comes to Wing Chun. In order to keep the body in balance, it teaches the idea of a center line in the body, which guides every action. The attacks consist mostly of rapid strikes performed while moving forward, into the opponent. The stance is also different from other martial arts, so be prepared to be sore in odd places.
The only way to stop your opponent in a fight is to inflict enough damage so he is incapable of further aggression. This means you have to know what anatomical targets are available for you to attack in a fight. This is actually important form both offensive and defensive reasons. Essentially, this means you have to assailant's anatomical targets are located in one of three possible target zones.
Mixed martial arts are extremely popular nowadays, but in actuality MMA has been around for a very long time. As a matter of fact, mixed martial arts date back to the Greco-Roman era where the ancient martial art Penetration appeared in the Olympic Games. Many historians agree that the mixed martial arts of ancient Greece and very similar to the mixed martial arts of modern day. However, mixed martial arts of today are considered to be one of the most regulated and controlled sports in the world.
Social workers can fight racism by helping affected populations at the individual and community levels. At the individual level, social workers can work on a case-by-case basis, with varying specializations, helping clients get what they need. Maybe you want to work with underprivileged and at-risk youth, helping them stay in school and get involved with extracurricular programs, apply for scholarships, or get vocational training. You could work for an agency, or at a school, or at a residential treatment facility as a counselor or a therapist, helping children and teenagers get access to resources they need, work through trauma, deal with mental health issues, and more.
Hope you guys liked Part 2 of this series. If you have any questions, feel free to comment in the Reddit thread, down below, or private message me. I'll be happy to answer any questions regarding the topics I discussed today. In Part 3, I will talk about the strength and power demands of MMA and training methods to develop those attributes. Stay tuned!
Lucca and Maia are assigned separate ride-alongs with the police. Lucca's uneventful night turns surprisingly eventful after she realizes that the person behind a DUI is Francesa Lovatelli, Colin's mother. She calls Colin and Colin arrives at the police station. While there, Lucca tells him that she is 3 months pregnant and that it is his child. At the firm Diane and Adrian advise clients who are about to be sued over running a story about sexual harassment. In the course of the case Adrian bumps into a former student and is surprised by what she tells him about himself.
I hope you get my point. The truth is mixed martial arts have numerous technical and tactical deficiencies for real world self defense applications. To avoid beating a dead horse and being redundant I won't list them here but you can read my submission fighting article and see exactly what I am talking about. Don't get me wrong, I have a tremendous amount of respect for mixed martial arts fighters. They are some of the best conditioned athletes in the world and their sport requires a tremendous amount of discipline and hard work. But the truth is, surviving a criminal assault in the streets requires a completely different form of training and mind set. The bottom line is, mixed martial arts will never be reality based self defense!
Edit: After speaking to a respected S&C coach that trains elite fighters, he and I both came to the conclusion that I have overstated the importance of lower intensity aerobic development, causing some of my points to be flat out wrong. MMA is no doubt an anaerobic sport - a comprehensive review of the literature on combat sports suggest that anaerobic capacity (lower end, longer bouts of anaerobic efforts) is what distinguishes high level fighters, to lower level competitors. I still believe a solid aerobic base should be possessed and the conditioning work should compliment MMA training. If MMA training lacks anaerobic capacity work, conditioning must address this. If MMA training has sufficient anaerobic capacity work, a S&C coach should preserve these adaptations. 
1) Training Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) will build confidence in you. When you know how to fight your mind is a little calmer, a little freer, and a little more relaxed. When you know how to throw a punch, break an arm, or choke someone unconscious there isn't too much threat of physical confrontation. And if there is threat, it is easier to walk away.
(February 10, 2011), Silva or Fedor? Who you prefer says lots about why you watch "You can argue the point either way, and people have, and will, and I don't have any fixed opinion on the matter other than that I would like to see the two fight at light heavyweight. What's actually interesting is that when you run down their records the two are even closer than you might think.", Sports Illustrated, Retrieved May 17, 2014
The firm is contacted by a student Dominika, who fears she is being deported to Russia because she is one of the prostitutes from the golden shower tape mentioned in the Steele dossier, and her existence would prove that Vladimir Putin has compromising material on President Trump. Meanwhile, Maia and Lucca bend ethical rules to support Craig's lawyer, but even with coaching he proves too inept to get the job done. When a white supremacist becomes the Republican Congressional candidate for Illinois's 1st congressional district, greater attention falls on Colin's campaign to become the Democratic candidate. The Democrats are concerned that Colin's prosecutorial history appears racially biased. Lucca suggests he uses an investigation into police corruption to overturn several black convictions and change his statistics, and as a result Craig's sentence is vacated. The FBI offer Dominika a deal, allowing her to stay if, she admits the tape is a fake.
Sambo is a Russian martial art, combat sport and self-defense system.[119] It is a mixture of Judo and Freestyle Wrestling using a Keikogi known as Kurtka. Sambo focuses on throwing, takedowns, grappling, and includes submissions from Judo and Catch Wrestling. Sambo also has a modality known as Combat Sambo, which adds punches, kicks, elbows and knees, making it a proto-MMA hybrid fighting style. Sambo is popular in Russia and eastern Europe, where it is taught as a complement to Judo and Wrestling training, Sambo also provides a good base for MMA with all-around skills for combining grappling and striking. Some notable Sambo fighters that transitioned into MMA include: Fedor Emelianenko, Igor Vovchanchyn, Oleg Taktarov and Khabib Nurmagomedov.
The greatest MMA fighter of all time is considered by experts, fighters and fans to be either heavyweight Fedor Emelianenko or middleweight Anderson Silva.[78] UFC color commentator Joe Rogan responded to a fan's question: "Joe, is Fedor the Greatest Of All Time? It's him or Anderson, and I could see the argument going either way honestly. Both guys have had truly magical moments in competition against some of the best in the world."[79]
The Systems Training Center gyms were created to offer high quality classes in boxing, kickboxing/Muay Thai, BJJ (Brazilian Jiu Jitsu), Krav Maga, CrossFit, HIIT Fit (High Intensive Interval Training), Combat conditioning, yoga for adults and kids martial arts classes, including kids BJJ and kids Krav Maga. Our vision when we opened was to create a safe, fun and empowering home away from home for people of all ages, backgrounds, and ethnicities. Systems Training Center has a well-known MMA team with fighters competing in some of the top MMA organizations, such as the UFC, Bellator, and LFA. This makes for high-quality classes, taught by some of the best coaches in the world!
MMA is tolerated in Belgium but not supported. In May 2012 the Belgian MMA Federation (BMMAF) was accepted by the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation as its third member, after several years of carrying out many of the tasks of a national federation under the former name of the Belgian Shooto and MMA Federation. Active in developing MMA in Belgium from 2005, the group later redefined their activities to include MMA in order to be able to use a cage. Registered as a federation in Belgium in 2006, the former Belgian Shooto and MMA Federation organized more than 1500 MMA bouts (Amateur, B class and A class), and built a structure for the sport nationally that included insurance, rules and regulation, and experience levels for fighters and technical seminars. The BMMAF has continued its activities as part of the wider MMA community under IMMAF.[196][197][198]
As MMA classes open their doors to a wider range of students, many of the new faces in these gyms are women. Their inclusion is a reflection of a larger trend in the professional ranks, where the number of female fighters has increased dramatically since the UFC introduced a women’s division in 2012. At the UFC’s fitness gyms, 44 percent of all members are women, Sedlack said.

Neil Gross immediately puts the firm to work when he wants hate speech, and the people responsible for it, removed from his websites. Maia takes the assignment personally when the hate speech sounds like threats she has been getting. Colin talks to his supervisor again about Kresteva. Marissa thinks about getting into investigating. Maia's uncle stops by the office to see her. He warns her that her father is up to something. She reaches out to Elsbeth for advice. Things are heating up between Colin and Lucca until he asks her to go to dinner. After the firm decides to implement an appeals process for banned users, one such user has a field day presenting his narrative. Information from the firm's discussions about the appeals process is leaked. Online users use it to their advantage. Lucca arranges a date so that they'll run into Colin but it doesn't produce the results she's expecting. When she confronts him later, she's surprised again. Maia shows up for a meeting with her dad and finds a party in progress. She's nervous when he tries to speak with her in private. Marissa steps in when the investigator needs some help tracking down a very specific kind of online user. Not surprisingly, she's good at it. Elsbeth stops by to warn the firm about the newest fake news story. Julius makes a surprising decision about his future with the firm.
Shoot-boxing, pioneered and popular in Asia, Russia and Brazil, is the most innovative and cutting edge approach to stand up fighting. It is the stand-up portion of MMA, melding Muay Thai kickboxing’s kicks, knees and elbows with precision boxing and high level wrestling and Judo. It combines traditional stand up strikes with takedown defense, dirty boxing and grappling/ striking combinations into a brutally effective, sophisticated and devastating pattern of attacks, that is totally modern and oriented not for a sport, but for combat. We are the only academy in the NYC area specifically specializing in this innovative style.
While mixed martial arts was initially practiced almost exclusively by competitive fighters, this is no longer the case. As the sport has become more mainstream and more widely taught, it has become accessible to wider range of practitioners of all ages. Proponents of this sort of training argue that it is safe for anyone, of any age, with varying levels of competitiveness and fitness.[95][96]
Studying history, you can learn to identify patterns that define racist behaviors, and recognize these patterns in the present. You can see how racist rhetoric and actions have shifted over time, and how they continue to exist and affect us today. This insight will provide you with an understanding of how to better fight these patterns, and how to make racism a thing of the past, a subject of history.

The first thing you should always do is start your MMA workout with some shadow boxing. This is done best in front of a mirror so that you can see your style of striking and the improvements you need to make while striking. If you’re new to shadow boxing, a good rule of thumb is to always finish your punching combinations with knees or kicks. If you’re a boxer then don’t worry about knees or kicks, just work on your punching combinations and your flow. Visualize the opponent in front of you and moved to create angles that could be used in a real life situation. Don’t be stagnant with your movement, allow yourself to be comfortable so that you can become more confident with your flow.

Volume indicates how much total work is being put into endurance training. In sports like running, cycling and swimming, volume will be represented by the total distance travelled during training. In team sports and sports like MMA, training volume is measured by using the "time in zone" method. How much time per training day or training week are we spending in each training zone? This will give us an idea on how much rest an athlete needs, or whether we need to push them harder to achieve the level of conditioning we're seeking.
Any recommendations for a twenty five year old female who is barely over five feet tall and ninety five pounds? I’ve gotten up to three hours of kundalini a day and 100 pushups straight, as well as two years wushu, but I’ve been in some seriously bad fights and had the shit kicked out of me. I really don’t want to keep being so damn small and unable to defend myself.
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In general, the injury pattern in MMA is very similar to that in professional boxing but unlike that found in other combat sports such as judo and taekwondo.[170] The most commonly injured body region is the head (66.8% to 78.0% of reported injuries) followed by the wrist/hand (6.0% to 12.0% of reported injuries), while the most frequent types of injury were laceration (36.7% to 59.4% of reported injuries), fracture (7.4% to 43.3% of reported injuries), and concussion (3.8% to 20.4% of reported injuries).[170] The frequency of impact to the ear and low utilization of ear protection leads to a high frequency of perichondral hematoma that can lead to cauliflower ear.[178]


Just because you hit the weights doesn’t mean you shouldn’t hit the basketball court too. Even if your goal is to add size, you can still benefit from intramural activities. Mosley does. He supplements his workouts with bowling, basketball, and snowboarding. It helps him stay in shape all year long, and trains his body to maintain balance and endurance in any environment—and that helps him be a better boxer.
I hope you get my point. The truth is mixed martial arts have numerous technical and tactical deficiencies for real world self defense applications. To avoid beating a dead horse and being redundant I won't list them here but you can read my submission fighting article and see exactly what I am talking about. Don't get me wrong, I have a tremendous amount of respect for mixed martial arts fighters. They are some of the best conditioned athletes in the world and their sport requires a tremendous amount of discipline and hard work. But the truth is, surviving a criminal assault in the streets requires a completely different form of training and mind set. The bottom line is, mixed martial arts will never be reality based self defense!
3) Training MMA is an excellent physical workout. Sparring (Boxing practice during training) or grappling (wrestling or ground-fighting practice) for 3-5 minute rounds is absolutely brutal cardio, which is why fighters are usually in top notch physical condition. There is no treadmill or stair-master in the world that can beat the benefits of practice fighting.

The third, 5-minute round puts everything together, combining punching and kicking. This will exhaust you, but do your best to keep your intensity up—it's only 5 total minutes of work. "No throwing single strikes!" Camozzi emphasizes. "I throw all combos and mix up speed and power throughout the round. High, low, hard, fast, double up strikes, burn those muscles and lungs."
“I grew up playing sports my whole life. I played soccer, baseball, hockey and football. After high school I started putting on a lot of weight from being inactive. Joe and I found the Cove and the rest was history. I went from being over 250 lbs to 215 in the first 3 months. Now I fight at 185 lbs., planning on dropping to 170. I owe it all to Mr. Arnebeck and the Warrior’s Cove. The training at the Warriors Cove is intelligent, safe and effective. It is not a “tough guy” school like so many others that are out there nowadays. You are taught the very core of Jiu Jitsu and stand up fighting (striking, clinching and takedowns) which is the most important (I always preach fundamentals). Everybody at the Cove is friendly and always willing to help each other, and when needed, willing to push each other, challenge each other and help each other grow, not only as martial artists but as human beings as well.”
Jeremy Pacatiw has represented the Philippines inside the Brave cage in Brazil, India, Morocco, and Pakistan, and is excited to be coming home, as the world's only truly global mixed martial arts organization lands in Manila: "I learned a lot in this sport. The discipline, attitude, mental toughness, humility. All of those things changed my life. It changed the way I view life and my way of life as well. Now I'm able to support myself, help my parents, buy my own things. I want to inspire others through sport. I want to show the youth that all things are possible. I feel like I need to be a good example for the next generation and I think that starts with respect. ... I always took my losses as a success, because I've learned a lot from them. They give me motivation, they're a stepping stone to my eventual success."

Do you want to join the ranks of Randy Couture, Quinton "Rampage" Jackson, and Anderson Silva in becoming an Ultimate Fighter? With the proper guidance and background, you can learn to become the kind of well-rounded athletic competitor that the UFC is looking for. Learn to fight, get experience, and figure out how to go pro. See Step 1 for more information.
IMHO Judo is legit for self defence. Hell, I know what’s coming and still it’s disconcerting to see your world spin and end up on your back. Yeah, no striking. Yeah it’s sport orientated (BJJ is at risk of going that way as well). Still, throwing dumb motherfuckers hard on solid ground is a fight stopper. Judoka like to say “nobody hits as hard as the Earth”
What factors go into losing those last five pounds? Could it be the basic items such as sleep, mood levels, or getting the right app? Or is it the high level answers (like gluton, insulin, libido) that can really shave the last few pounds? We called a doctor to join us give us answers in episode 73 of In Fighting Shape. You don't want to miss Dr. Serena Goldstein break it down for you listeners, so tune in for episode 73 now!
And most importantly, exactly what to do, how to do it, and when – choose between an 8, 12 and 16 week training template to follow that outlines everything including: intervals, cardio, bodyweight circuits, medicine ball training, weight training, core, NRG System Complexes and more, with exact reps, sets, rest periods and every detail you need to reach your physical potential
There are multiple contrasting studies on whether the addition of more frequent high intensity endurance training yielded any performance improvements. Some researchers found athletes that don't respond well to high volume low-intensity training showed greater improvements when they increased their frequency and volume of high intensity training. However on the contrary, the benefits of performing more high intensity training in already well-trained athletes, are limited.
In April 2000, the California State Athletic Commission voted unanimously in favor of regulations that later became the foundation for the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. However, when the legislation was sent to the California capital in Sacramento for review, it was determined that the sport fell outside the jurisdiction of the CSAC, rendering the vote meaningless.[52]
“The quality of training, the hours, the flexibility to attend other classes and sessions are all GREAT! I’ve only been a member for a short time, but I have found all of the instructors to be deserving of recognition.  They have all shown tremendous patience with me personally and have taken the time to work with me to improve. I originally joined the Cove as a way of providing some conditioning to my workouts.  I’m happy to say that I received that and so much more.  Under Mr. Arnebeck’s direction and dedication the Cove has been an incredible experience.  My conditioning has improved, I’ve lost over 20lbs, and I’ve taken my self defense skills to a whole new level.  The Warrior’s Cove provides everything you’re looking for.”
In March 1997, the Iowa Athletic Commission officially sanctioned Battlecade Extreme Fighting under a modified form of its existing rules for Shootfighting. These rules created the three 5 minute round, one-minute break format, and mandated shootfighting gloves, as well as weight classes, for the first time. Illegal blows were listed as groin strikes, head butting, biting, eye gouging, hair pulling, striking an opponent with an elbow while the opponent is on the mat, kidney strikes, and striking the back of the head with closed fist. Holding onto the ring or cage for any reason was defined as a foul.[50][51] While there are minor differences between these and the final Unified Rules, notably regarding elbow strikes, the Iowa rules allowed mixed martial arts promoters to conduct essentially modern events legally, anywhere in the state. On March 28, 1997, Extreme Fighting 4 was held under these rules, making it the first show conducted under a version of the modern rules.
However, in the same period of time, America has seen alarming spikes in registered hate groups across the board, especially racially divisive hate groups, such as white nationalist and separatist groups. 2015 was dubbed “The Year of Enormous Rage” by the Washington Post. The values of fascism have been increasingly validated in the public and political spheres.
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