In 2009, we saw the inauguration of America's first black president, Barack Obama, who has just recently exited the position after the completion of his second term. Beyond the highest office in the land, there has been a significant increase in the number of notable people of color in prominent positions, not just in business or industry, but also in media. People of color, ethnic minorities, and women have come to increasingly occupy roles that have too often been reserved solely for white men.
In addition to unarmed training, self defense must include training in the use of and defense against weapons. See our weapons page for more detailed information. These days it's likely a real predator will have a weapon. Training to defend against blunt, sharp, and projectile weapons is essential. And because the use of weapons can give you a major advantage, learning to use weapons (including objects found in your environment) should not be neglected.

In general, fighters who cannot win fights through lightning offense, or are more suited to win fights in the later rounds or via decision are commonly known as grinders. Grinders aim to shut down their opponent's game plan and chip away at them via clinching, smothering and ground-and-pound for most of the rounds. Prominent examples of grinders are Pat Healy,[143] and Chael Sonnen.[144]

Marsden also makes it clear that bodyweight conditioning workouts are every bit as important for MMA training as throwing punches in the ring. “If there’s one thing for certain in this sport, it’s that your heart rate will change several times over the course of a five-minute round due to the many battle styles a fight can take. It may start as a boxing match, move into Olympic-level wrestling, then return back to the feet,” Marsden says.
Our MMA classes are open all levels of experience.  The  format is primarily learning the technical aspects of MMA with little live training and no sparring.  All serious MMA fighters train in various specific disciplines. These usually include Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, Wrestling, Boxing, and others.  Today, some gyms and martial arts schools teach pieces of these various arts and call it MMA Training.  In our classes we focus on techniques specific to MMA. An example is controlling an opponent against the cage.  Our cirriculum is based on techniques and methods used by Renzo Gracie’s world class team.
The fight against racism needs to occur from inside the boardrooms of a corporation, both by people of color in high-ranking corporate positions and by white advocates who understand the need to create a positive and inclusive corporate culture. A degree in business, whether undergraduate or graduate, can help you climb the corporate ladder, or make your own ladder by becoming a successful entrepreneur. If you are a minority, you can fight racism through occupation; if you are white, you can still fight, through advocacy and mindfulness, ultimately contributing to a better work environment for all personnel.
Sambo is a Russian martial art, combat sport and self-defense system.[119] It is a mixture of Judo and Freestyle Wrestling using a Keikogi known as Kurtka. Sambo focuses on throwing, takedowns, grappling, and includes submissions from Judo and Catch Wrestling. Sambo also has a modality known as Combat Sambo, which adds punches, kicks, elbows and knees, making it a proto-MMA hybrid fighting style. Sambo is popular in Russia and eastern Europe, where it is taught as a complement to Judo and Wrestling training, Sambo also provides a good base for MMA with all-around skills for combining grappling and striking. Some notable Sambo fighters that transitioned into MMA include: Fedor Emelianenko, Igor Vovchanchyn, Oleg Taktarov and Khabib Nurmagomedov.
Since repetition is critical to gaining proficiency in any skill, shadow boxing is a pivotal training technique because it provide fighters the opportunity to unlimited repetitions with little physical wear-and-tear. But please note that it’s not just any reps, these should be high-quality reps with deliberate focus on specific skills and strategies. A key strategy is to film the sessions and make corrections to form and enhance or provide more complexities to the shadow boxing as the skill progresses. Bruce Lee summed this up perfectly when he said, “I fear not the man who has practiced 10,000 kicks once, but I fear the man who has practiced one kick 10,000 times.” Great MMA boxers like Masvidal engage in quality reps along with other aspects of training that include good coaching and sparring. Shadow boxing is a time-tested, essential tool for building striking efficiency and effectiveness.
It is clear that shadow boxing is important to becoming a mixed martial artist with good boxing skills. But what exactly is shadow boxing? Much like a the traditional martial artist practices kata, shadowboxing is a less scripted, more fluid training technique that entails the fighter rehearsing all aspects of his boxing repertoire as he simulates a fight. Specifically, the fighter imagines an opponent defending and throwing punches and he or she does the same. The beauty of shadow boxing is that it can be done almost anywhere, at any time. The gym, the beach, the hallway at work, the parking lot, and while limited, aspects of shadowboxing can even be done from your seat! Fighters who regularly shadow box have striking that truly looks like art. In fact, one can often tell which fighters have put in the required reps by the shoulder roll (it almost looks as if the fighter is temporarily dislocating their shoulder) apparent while they are shadow boxing. While many mixed martial artists tend to have tight shoulders with little “roll,” watch any professional boxer as they shadow box. The difference will be apparent.
What’s best is all of these exercises are basic. The volume of reps attached to them, however… well, good luck with them, because you might have to tap out before you can finish. With that in mind, be sure to adjust the workouts to your own fitness level. Push yourself, but don't overextend and put yourself in danger. Work up to the full number of reps over time.
If a fighter has been doing two workouts per day for a month straight, has poor nutrition, doesn’t sleep much, and is stressed out, the last thing he needs is a ball-busting, crusher workout that is just going to break him down even more. Remember, these guys are punching each other in the face, taking each other down, and tying each other into knots. They are always banged up somewhere.
Victor speaks the truth, if you do train hard and you have fought woman who train hard then you would know that what you said is BS, its not PC but being a white knight and playing the PC card isn’t going to help you out in life. Are some (very very few) woman bad asses? for sure and for certain, can many of the few compare to the (average) hard training man? no way. You are living in a safe space, triggering, gender equality fantasy world. The idea of equality is a myth, and that is not a bad thing, we all have strength and weaknesses and we shouldn’t act like everyone is the same. Ask or look up Pro female MMA fighters and find out how they feel about the idea of fighting men in the ring. I’m not trying to be rude to you but you should try and get a grip in reality. The transgender MMA Fighter Fallon Fox is a good example of why men should not fight woman in MMA.
Fuel your body right. MMA fighter Jon Manley recommends eating five clean meals per day, consisting of lean proteins, a variety of fruits and vegetables and unprocessed carbohydrates. Shop the outer rim of the grocery store to avoid the urge to purchase processed junk food that lurks on the inner-aisle shelves. Drink at least a gallon of water a day and drop your calories gradually if you need to lose weight.
“I’ve taken numerous martial arts (and benefited from all of them), but I’ve definitely learned the most from my experience in grappling that I’ve received at the Warrior’s Cove. I’ve always really appreciated the realism our school embraces. The people we tend to attract and who stay with the school, as well as the instructors are the most excellent people I’ve ever trained in martial arts with (double kudos to that end)… I’ve never felt really skilled at a physical activity until I found Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. It capitalizes on my strengths, and with time, I know it will make me a formidable fighter. You don’t have to be strong, fast, or big to become a formidable fighter; that is one of the first things you learn here. You learn how to overcome size, strength and blind aggression with technique. The realism of full-strength grappling (which can be done without the bruising caused by striking) wears you down at first, but you learn how to compensate technique for strength. Being less strong than your opponent becomes less intimidating, and full-strength grappling will feel pretty close to what a real self-defense situation will be like. Being a man of only modest build, I use to wonder what I’d be able to do to defend myself if someone stronger ever attacked me full-out. After near 6 months of training here, I know if I ever have to defend myself or my family from an attacker I will not worry about being tough enough.”

The FRONTIER Miles program caters to travelers based in Denver and the Midwest who frequently fly within the United States. Frontier Airlines services major domestic airports – like those in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Chicago – as well as smaller destinations like Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Fargo, North Dakota; and Bozeman, Montana. Frontier also offers flights to various destinations throughout Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. The FRONTIER Miles program awards miles based on the airport-to-airport air mileage distance flown. Miles earned can be used for free flights, car rentals and magazine subscriptions. FRONTIER Miles members can also earn miles when staying at certain hotels, purchasing services through partner merchants and charging everyday expenses to the Frontier Airlines World Mastercard credit card by Barclays.


I appreciate it when you pointed out that since mixed martial arts involves proper sleeping, eating, and resting in order to be successful, doing this will teach a person about discipline. If so, then I need to give this a try since I am slightly less disciplined than my brother. Since I am also pretty much weak in terms of body, doing this will benefit me a lot.

The third death on August 11, 2012 involved 30 year old Tyrone Mims, who was making his amateur MMA debut at “Conflict MMA: Fight Night at the Point VI” in South Carolina, making his the second MMA-related death in the state.[184] After being TKO’d in the second round of the fight he became unresponsive and was taken to Medical University Hospital, where he was pronounced dead one hour later. No evidence of brain trauma or concussion was found, however, and the initial autopsy has proved inconclusive. Coroner Rae Wooten explained that his death may likely have been from an irregular heartbeat caused by over exertion; however whether or not his death was a direct result of his fight remains a mystery.[185]

According to the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts, an MMA competition or exhibition may be held in a ring or a fenced area. The fenced area can be round or have at least six sides. Cages vary: some replace the metal fencing with a net, others have a different shape from an octagon, as the term "the Octagon" is trademarked by the UFC (though the 8-sided shape itself is not trademarked).[93] The fenced area is called a cage generically, or a hexagon, an octagon or an octagon cage, depending on the shape.

Kickboxing classes at Team Quest MMA in Portland are a mixture of several techniques employed in the rest of the forms of martial arts. Referred to as the “science of 8 limbs” simply because almost all parts of the body are employed during the fight. The forehead, the fists, elbows, knees, and feet are often used as the weapons. It has been around for more than 2000 years and is basically regarded as the oldest variant of martial arts.
Ruth McRoy – McRoy holds the title of Endowed Professorship at the Boston College School of Social work, and is a co-founding Director of Research and Innovations in Social, Economic, and Environmental Equity (RISE) at Boston College. She is widely published and has been an educator of social work for over three decades. Her work focuses on race and family services, such as disproportionality in welfare, and adoption.
There are multiple contrasting studies on whether the addition of more frequent high intensity endurance training yielded any performance improvements. Some researchers found athletes that don't respond well to high volume low-intensity training showed greater improvements when they increased their frequency and volume of high intensity training. However on the contrary, the benefits of performing more high intensity training in already well-trained athletes, are limited.
There are still some strength and conditioning coaches out there who train the fighters as if the gym, not the cage, was their main sport. If your athlete gets seriously injured during a conditioning session and you jeopardize his/her career because of it, it means you failed as a trainer. Therefore the selection of exercise and equipment according to athlete’s ability is so important. The gym is not a place to take risks.
In 2012, the Sports Authority of Thailand banned competitions.[265] It has been speculated that the Muay Thai industry played a factor in the Sports Authority of Thailand (SAT)'s final decision, as MMA could potentially take away business from Muay Thai.[266] SAT Deputy Governor Sakol Wannapong has said "Organizing a MMA event here would hurt the image of Muay Thai, if you want to do this kind of business, you should do it in another country. Organizing MMA here could mislead the public into believing that Muay Thai is brutal."
Edit: After speaking to a respected S&C coach that trains elite fighters, he and I both came to the conclusion that I have overstated the importance of lower intensity aerobic development, causing some of my points to be flat out wrong. MMA is no doubt an anaerobic sport - a comprehensive review of the literature on combat sports suggest that anaerobic capacity (lower end, longer bouts of anaerobic efforts) is what distinguishes high level fighters, to lower level competitors. I still believe a solid aerobic base should be possessed and the conditioning work should compliment MMA training. If MMA training lacks anaerobic capacity work, conditioning must address this. If MMA training has sufficient anaerobic capacity work, a S&C coach should preserve these adaptations. 
A well-documented fight between Golden Gloves boxing champion Joey Hadley and Arkansas Karate Champion David Valovich happened on June 22, 1976 at Memphis Blues Baseball Park. The bout had mixed rules: the karateka was allowed to use his fists, feet and knees, while the boxer could only use his fists. Hadley won the fight via knockout on the first round.[35]
Every training method for self defense is necessarily lacking. The purpose of techniques is to take your opponent out. If you're not doing that in training, something is missing. But since we can't kill or injure our partner each training session, we remove realistic elements. We can remove speed and/or power, lowering intensity to prevent injury, wear protective gear, limit techniques to only those that won't do serious damage, "pull punches", etc.

Place both hands on the ground and jump back into a sprawl or burpee position. When working with my MMA athletes, I cue them to get their hips down quickly and low to the ground. For the general fitness enthusiast, jumping back into a push-up position is another great option. Reverse this movement and as you come up, perform a jump straight up into the air, using your arms to assist in the movement. Immediately drop back down and repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
I don’t mark the rest periods in between sets or exercises. Rest as long as you need and approach each set as recovered as possible. Avoid failure. You should stop each set before you can’t lift any more, and rest longer if you need to so that you can follow along with the workout. The recommended starting weights assume familiarity with the exercises. If you are new to a program like this or are detrained, add a few reps to each rep max recommendation. For example, where it says “3 x 5 with your 8-rep max” instead, do 3 x 5 with your 10- or 11-rep max instead, as the work out will rapidly become too difficult to do with your 8-rep max.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a complete fighting system that teaches you how to control and subdue your opponent. You learn not only how to immobilize an opponent effectively so they can’t attack you, but also how to defeat them humanely without having to seriously hurt them. It’s the only proven style where a smaller person can immobilize and defeat a stronger, larger attacker.
In Japan, female competition has been documented since the mid-1990s. Influenced by female professional wrestling and kickboxing, the Smackgirl competition was formed in 2001 and became the only major all-female promotion in mixed martial arts. Other early successful Japanese female organizations included Ladies Legend Pro-Wrestling, ReMix (a predecessor to Smackgirl), U-Top Tournament, K-Grace, and AX.[citation needed]
Elite MMA is the top mixed martial arts (MMA) training facility in the greater Houston area, with school locations in Houston, Baytown, Greenway Plaza and Kingwood. We are experts in the instruction of self-defense, muay thai, kickboxing, boxing, mixed martial arts (MMA) and Brazilian Ju Jitsu (BJJ), offering these essential classes across Houston. We pride ourselves on providing an environment for fun, happiness, and personal growth each day we come together. Thank you for coming to our web site.
Danny Indio is certified as an Apprentice Instructor in Jeet Kune Do Concepts and Filipino Martial Arts under Sifu Dan Anderson (a student of the famous Guro Dan Inosanto) in New York City. He has trained under many instructors, such as Vitor "Shaolin" Ribeiro and Paul Vunak. He is also a Muay Thai instructor. Indio was a Marine Corps Martial Arts Instructor from 2001-2003. He has over ten years of experience teaching martial arts, and has fought—and won—numerous matches in boxing, grappling tournaments and stick fighting competitions.
Study mat wrestling. If you're young and just starting out, consider joining your school's wrestling team to get a good foundation in mat wrestling and get experience fighting in a controlled environment. It might not be as flashy as what happens in the UFC, but learning the fundamentals of amateur wrestling will make you a stronger fighter in the long run, building your mat skills and your endurance. It's also a great way to keep tabs on your weight and get into good fighting shape.[1]
You know what, I was reading through this article and was like why this is pretty good for a blog but for you to be sexist towards women fighters, go to hell and be a real man. OH, why look at the big man talking shit about females on a blog. First of all of course a man is stronger than a woman that obvious but for you to personally tell a woman to get pepper spray makes you incompetent and ill make sure i dont visit this sexist ass site anymore.
The rules for modern mixed martial arts competitions have changed significantly since the early days of vale tudo, Japanese shoot wrestling, and UFC 1, and even more from the historic style of pankration. As the knowledge of fighting techniques spread among fighters and spectators, it became clear that the original minimalist rule systems needed to be amended.[80] The main motivations for these rule changes were protection of the health of the fighters, the desire to shed the perception of "barbarism and lawlessness", and to be recognized as a legitimate sport.[citation needed]
You don't have to be a points and miles expert to find a frequent flyer program that suits your travel habits. When choosing a program, you'll want to consider a few key criteria, such as flight options, network coverage and how easy it is to earn a free flight. To help everyday travelers weigh their options, U.S. News evaluated nine leading airline rewards programs using a methodology that takes into account each program's earning and redemption values, benefits, network coverage and award flight availability, among other features. Our approach places emphasis on the ease of earning miles and redeeming free flights for basic members. Browse our 2018-19 Best Airline Rewards Programs ranking and detailed program profiles to find the best program for you.
Regulated mixed martial arts competitions were first introduced in the United States by CV Productions, Inc.. Its first competition, called Tough Guy Contest was held on March 20, 1980, New Kensington, Pennsylvania, Holiday Inn. During that year the company renamed the brand to Super Fighters and sanctioned ten regulated tournaments in Pennsylvania. In 1983, Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill that specifically called for: "Prohibiting Tough Guy contests or Battle of the Brawlers contests", and ended the sport.[5][6][38] In 1993, the sport was reintroduced to the United States by the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC).[39] The sport gained international exposure and widespread publicity when jiu-jitsu fighter Royce Gracie won the first Ultimate Fighting Championship tournament, submitting three challengers in a total of just five minutes.[40] sparking a revolution in martial arts.[41][42]
Shadowing is not only a tool to practice your technique and craft but it's also an opportunity for the fighter to create certain scenarios that could actually happen in a fight. You may be up against an opponent who moves a lot and may have to play the role of a come forward aggressive fighter, attacking with good power jabs, head movement and feints to get the fighter on the defensive; or to break the fighter’s rhythm to get close or cut the cage off to stop the movement of that fighter. Or you can be up against an aggressive come forward fighter and you may have to play the role of the slick mover using angles, pivots to keep the aggressive bull off you playing the role of a matador. These are just a couple of scenarios that need to be played out during your career as a fighter because best believe one day you will come across a fighter of that particular style and repetition is the only way to get it done.
As a result of an increased number of competitors, organized training camps, information sharing, and modern kinesiology, the understanding of the effectiveness of various strategies has been greatly improved. UFC commentator Joe Rogan claimed that martial arts evolved more in the ten years following 1993 than in the preceding 700 years combined.[70]
Submission-Seeking is a reference to the strategy of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw and then applying a submission hold, forcing the opponent to submit. While grapplers will often work to attain dominant position, some may be more comfortable fighting from other positions. If a grappler finds themselves unable to force a takedown, they may resort to pulling guard, whereby they physically pull their opponent into a dominant position on the ground.[137]
On November 7, 2016, it was announced that Gary Cole would be reprising his role as Diane's husband Kurt McVeigh.[15] It was confirmed on November 11, 2016, that Zach Grenier, Jerry Adler, and Carrie Preston would be returning as guest stars, reprising their roles of David Lee, Howard Lyman, and Elsbeth Tascioni respectively.[16][18] On November 18, 2016, it was announced that Justin Bartha had been added as a series regular as Colin, a rising star in the US Attorney's office and love interest to Lucca.[10] On August 1, 2017, it was announced that Audra McDonald had been added to the main cast for season 2 as Liz Lawrence, reprising her role from The Good Wife season 4, and that Michael Boatman and Nyambi Nyambi had been promoted to main cast.[33] On November 7, 2018, it was reported that Michael Sheen had joined the main cast for season 3.[34]
Professional fights are 3 x 5 minute rounds with 1 minute rest in between rounds and Championship bouts are 5 x 5 minute rounds with 1 minute rest in between rounds. Amateur fights are slightly shorter, generally 3 x 3 minutes or less. A 15 minute or 25 minute fight then, requires a full spectrum of endurance capabilities. A respectable aerobic energy system must be developed to last the whole duration of the fight, while the short, repeated bursts of high-intensity action require a degree of anaerobic capacity and neuromuscular-alactic power.
For MMA training, what you are doing looks lovely good. You must be equipped to perform difficult and explosively at height level for brief durations of time. If you are training for beginner MMA, you will have to be training for three minute rounds with a 1 minute relaxation in between, 5 minute rounds for professional. It usually is good to do some ordinary strolling, anything round three miles (half of hour) three days per week to get your baseline cardio up and maintain lung and heart operate healthful. As a comparison, i am 6'three" and 185, so the whole thing I do i've 35lbs much less to move round doing it. With the interval training you are already doing, if you are gassing out in coaching i'd look to dietary changes. Are you consuming heavy dairy earlier than figuring out? Are you consuming lots of simple sugars and white flour? Are you drinking power drinks as an alternative of good ol' water? I suspect getting interested by the fuel you take into your body often is the next discipline to focus on. You need an particularly LEAN (low fat), high-protein diety with lots of elaborate carbs, now not simple carbs. Vegetable fats are just right (nuts, avacados, coconut milk), animal fat are bad (fatty cuts of meet, dairy, eggs). Taking fish oil i shealthy for cardio-pulmanary, and likewise helps your physique metabolize fat effeciently. And lot of spring water. Do not drink distilled water, as it is going to actually leach vitamins and minerals out of your body. Highest admire
Directions: Grab a pair of dumbbells. Start in a pushup position with your hands on the dumbbells. Complete two pushups. While in the “up” position, row one of the dumbbells to the side of your ribs. Place it back on the ground, then do another pushup. Repeat this step; only row with your alternate arm. Next, jump your feet toward your hands; clean and press the dumbbells. After, bring the dumbbells to waist-level and squat down until you can rest the dumbbells down, slightly in front of you. Jump back into pushup position.  
The materials and information provided in this presentation, document and/or any other communication (“Communication”) from Onnit Labs, Inc. or any related entity or person (collectively “Onnit”) are strictly for informational purposes only and are not intended for use as diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a health problem or as a substitute for consulting a qualified medical professional. Some of the concepts presented herein may be theoretical.
Studying and writing fiction, non-fiction, and poetry gives us insight into issues and situations that we may not otherwise be able to understand. Literature gives us a deep, direct connection to the human soul, and can move us in ways that other mediums cannot. Studying rhetoric lets us understand the deeper implications of the language that is being used all around us, dictating how we represent ourselves, each other, and the issues that matter most to us. 

On this very page that you’re reading right now, I’m going to reveal to you the most efficient methods of rapidly increasing your gains in strength, cardio and explosive power for MMA while training only 2 days per week. The very same methods I’ve used with UFC fighters like Claude Patrick. As you can see, they worked for him in his UFC debut (I’m in the background):
The history of modern MMA competition can be traced to mixed style contests throughout Europe, Japan, and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s.[19] In Japan, these contests were known as merikan, from the Japanese slang for "American [fighting]". Merikan contests were fought under a variety of rules, including points decision, best of three throws or knockdowns, and victory via knockout or submission.[20]
If a fighter has been doing two workouts per day for a month straight, has poor nutrition, doesn’t sleep much, and is stressed out, the last thing he needs is a ball-busting, crusher workout that is just going to break him down even more. Remember, these guys are punching each other in the face, taking each other down, and tying each other into knots. They are always banged up somewhere.
Volume indicates how much total work is being put into endurance training. In sports like running, cycling and swimming, volume will be represented by the total distance travelled during training. In team sports and sports like MMA, training volume is measured by using the "time in zone" method. How much time per training day or training week are we spending in each training zone? This will give us an idea on how much rest an athlete needs, or whether we need to push them harder to achieve the level of conditioning we're seeking.
Pursuing an Ethnic Studies degree will give you insight into the experiences, triumphs, and struggles of minority and ethnic groups in America. They are heavy on history, with a very specific historical focus, analyzing how a particular group got to where it is now, in modern day America. It incorporates a study of the culture's growth and development, and its shifting relationship with the majority population and government. It examines cultural artifacts, such as art, music, and literature, and utilizes philosophy and critical theories.
The focus of our off-season training cycles is to develop speed, agility, strength, power, force, acceleration, deceleration, mobility, explosiveness, reaction, conditioning, balance, core stability, confidence, mental toughness, good nutrition habits, kinesthetic awareness, and proprioception. All these dimensions of training are adapted and phased regularly for the individual athlete’s needs and the demands placed on him by playing football professionally.
While there is no doubt that intervals can be extremely effective tools to improve the fitness and overall conditioning of combat athletes and recreational trainees alike, lost amidst the endless discussion of their benefits has been the reality that all intervals are not created equally. The truth is that, despite what you may have read, there is no one single ideal interval or some magical work to rest ratio that should be used at all times or for all purposes.
Karate, especially Kyokushin and other full contact styles, has proven to be effective in the sport as it is one of the core foundations of kickboxing, and specializes in striking techniques.[107][108][109][110] Various styles of karate are practiced by some MMA fighters, notably Chuck Liddell, Bas Rutten, Lyoto Machida, Stephen Thompson, John Makdessi, Uriah Hall, Ryan Jimmo, Georges St-Pierre, Kyoji Horiguchi, and Louis Gaudinot. Liddell is known to have an extensive striking background in Kenpō with Fabio Martella[111] whereas Lyoto Machida practices Shotokan Ryu,[112] and St-Pierre practices Kyokushin.[113]
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